Afghan jihad and war with USSR During the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan, the North-West Frontier Province served as a major base for supplying the Mujahideen, who fought the Soviets during the 1980s. Following the invasion, over five million Afghan refugees poured into Pakistan, most residing in the North-West Frontier Province (as of 2007, nearly 3 million remain). The North-West Frontier Province remained heavily influenced by events in Afghanistan. The civil war led to the rise of the Taliban, which had emerged in the border region between Afghanistan, Baluchistan, PATA and FATA as a formidable political force. Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the FATA and bordering North-West Frontier Province became a front-line region again, as part of the global "War on Terror". In 2010, the name of the province was changed to Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Protests arose among the local ethnic Hazara population due to this name change, as they began to demand their own province.