Cultural Heritage of Pakistan INTRODUCTION In the developement of any nation.Its cultural heritage and its glorious past plays a vital role and serves as a source of inspiration and pride for t=its people.Our country Pakistan is accordingly proud of its cultural heritage. DEFINITION OF CULTURE Culture may be defined as behaviour peculiar to human beings,together with material objects used.Culture consists of languge ,ideas,beliefs,customs,codes,institution,tools,tec hniques,works of arts,ceremonies and so on.According to Allama Iqbal: "Culture encompasses all the mental,spiritual and physical activities of a nation.It includes the basic beliefs and faith,values and literature,art and architecture,music and mode of dress,manners and customs prevalent in a given society." PAKISTANI CULTURE IS A ISLAMIC CULTURE Pakistan is an Ideologic Islamic State.Its very existence is due to Islam,so the Pakistani culture is primarily based on the Islamic way of life.All other ingredients of culture are inspired by Islam.Pakistani culture is highlighted by its grandeure ,simplicity,firm convictions and noble deeds and ideas. ARCHAELOGICAL HERITAGE Pakistan has been the cradle of civilization that dates back more than five millenium.Over the centuries,through successive waves of migrations from the North West,as well as by internal migrations across the Sub Continent,Aryans,Persians,Greeks,Arabs and Mughals came and settled in the region and have left behind the archaelogical sites in Pakistan which is now being preserved.A brief review of the different civilizations which flourished and then perished with the passage of time is as under: Moen- jo- Daro Moen-jo-Daro is situated at a distance of some kilometers from Larkana.A civilization fourished there some 4000 years ago.It was discovered by Sir John Marshall in 1922.Moen jo Daro stands as most spectacular of all the excavate cities of the Indus valley civilization.It is strange that at its glory,it was a beautiful city with brick walled houses,pillared halls,markets,baths,lanes,streets and public places.Every house had walls,drains and bathrooms inside it. Harappa Harappa is situated in the city o Sahiwal.Scientist and archaelogists believe that Harappa also belongs to the Indus valley civilization.Remains of this city were excavated in the 1920. ****hara It is comparratively a new civilization,the regions comprising Northern Punjab,Peshawar valley and Eastern Afghanistan was known as ****hara.For a long time it remained the meeting place of various ancient cultures,as it was rule by many rulers.A distinctive art which is known as ****hara Art took place from here and flourished during the 2nd and 3rd century of Christian era.Thousand monastries and stupas were widely built here Buddha's figures,shapes and monastries all made prominent features of ****hara Arts. Buddhist Remains The Buddhist era ushered in some 500 years B.C.The Buddhist monastery Takht-i-Bahi is in N.W.F.P .It dates 2-5 century old.Some mounds were also found near Peshawar which represent Kanishka's mighty Pakistan.An impressive complex of Chapels,Stupas,quadrangles and monk's cells are also found.The great Buddhist civilization now forming the heritage of the present Pakistan culture. Taxila It was excavated in recent times near Rawalpindi.Taxila is the most popular name in history.It came into prominence during the Persian occupation.At its zenith,the city was the nucleus of religious and cultural activities. Thatta The main town of Thatta is famous for specimens of Indo-Muslim architecture in the Sub Continent.Noteable among them is the great mosque built by Shah-Jahan.The principle monuments of Thatta are located on the Makli Hill. ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE Lahore Fort It is also known as Shahi Qila.It was built by Akbar.The main structure inside the fort are the Moti Masjid,Diwan-e-Aam,Maktab Khana,the Shish Mahal and Nawlakha.The Hathi and Alamgir gates are also remarkable constructions. Badshahi Mosque It was built by Aurangzeb.Its architecture is similar to the Jamia Masjid Delhi.The mosque has been built with red stones while the domes are in marble. Jahangir Tomb This tomb wasbuiltby Shsh Jahan.It is known as a fine building of Lahore. Shalimar Garden It is situated on the Grand Trunk Road and is a magnificent remnant of Mughal Grandeur.The garden constitutes of three terraces,one above the other.Besides there is an elobrate and beautiful reservoir,water channels and fountains. Masjid Wazir Khan It is situated in Kashmir Baazar inside the walls of the old city.It was built by Nawab Wazir Khan who was a viceroy of Punjab under Shah Jahan. Golden Mosque It is situated near the Masjid Wazir Khan .It was built during the rule of Mohammad Shah and it is also a very beautifull piece of architecture. Mahabat Khan Mosque This Mosque was built by a Government of Peshawar.Mahabat Khan,duringShah Jahan's region.It has afine massive structured with lofty minarets. The Fort of Bala Hasar This fort was built on raised plateform 92 feet from the ground level.There are two gardens near the fort. HERITAGE IN FINE ARTS Paintings The art of painting has developed slowly in the Muslim of South Asia.In the beginning decorative paintings and embroidery were made on the walls and ceilings of buildings.The Mughal rulers were very fond of paintings.The traditional art of painting occupies a prominent place in the people of Pakistan.Abdul Rehman Chughtai,Haji Mohammad Sharif,Jamil Nagshare are the most distinguished painters. Calligraphy The Muslim took a keen intrest in the promotion of calligraphy.Its main reason is their deep love with Holy Quran.During this period many kinds of calligraphy progressesd.The mosques constructed during early and medieval periods of Islam were decorated with masterpieces of calligraphy. Music The Mughal contributed a great deal to the promotion of music and Pakistan has inherited musical traditios that go far back in history.Ameer Khusro and Tansain are famous musicians of the historical era. Architecture and Sculpture The Muslim art of architecture was unique in every aspects.The architecture and all the miniature arts including carving,sculpture,mosaic works,tile works and paintings were called upon to build new mosques and places. CONCLUSION In the developement of Pakistan society,its cultural heritage has played a vital role.Pakistani nation is justly proud of the historical period which brings with nearly 4th century B.C and continued with the advent of Islam in Sub Continent in 8th century A.D. "Our cultural heritage expresses courage ,patients and hard life.They all are in connection with life which is a fundamental part of Islamic teachings."