Geography and Climate of Pakistan Two different geographic features helped to shape the development of Pakistan. One of those features was created by inland waterways, and the other was created by the mountains, mountains that cover so much of the terrain within Pakistan. As civilizations developed along the Nile and around the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, one group of ancient people discovered the richness of the valley along the Indus and Ghaggus Hakra Rivers. At that time, the need for production of food by farming drove the creation of settlements. Thus many people settled in the valley around the Indus and Ghaggus Hakra Rivers. Their settlements introduced the elements of civilization into the region that was to become Pakistan. The people in that valley had access to rich mineral deposits, deposits in the surrounding mountains. They were able to mine copper, lead and tin. That combination of metals gave the growing settlements the ability to make bronze tools, bronze weapons and other bronze implements. Now as the people in that settlement began to negotiate and trade with the nomads who passed over the mountains, the world began to hear about the resources in the Indus valley. Some of those who heard about those resources wanted to seize a piece of them. They wanted to invade the settlements around the Indus and Ghaggus Hakra Rivers. A second geographic feature, the Kyber Balon Pass, gave prospective invaders a ready pathway into the growing settlements. That is why the region now known as Pakistan has seen many different invaders. The invaders came from at least three different directions. Mongols invaded the region from the northeast. Turks and Afghans invaded from the northwest. Greeks, Persians and Arabs invaded from the west. Until the coming of the British, no foreigners had approached the region that is now Pakistan from the Arabic Sea, the body of water that is fed by waters from the Persian Gulf. Today, Pakistan is bordered by India on the east and China in the north. To the west, Pakistan has two neighbors-Iran and Afghanistan. The waters of the Arabic Sea remain the southern border of Pakistan. The climate of Pakistan exhibits a large range of climatic conditions. In the lower elevations, there are a number of desert regions. There the summers can be hot and unpleasant. In the higher elevations, inhabitants must endure snow and cold temperatures in the winter. The trials of the mountain dwellers were demonstrated by a short but powerful geographic happening. On the morning of October 8, 2005, an earthquake rocked the Pakistani controlled region of Kashmir. Soon many aid groups struggled to find a way into the isolated villages. They wanted to reach those villages before the arrival of freezing temperatures, and before snow had covered the area. The world's response to that earthquake highlighted both the climate and geography of Pakistan. The world saw many pictures of the mountains in northern Pakistan. The world also got a clear view of how very cold it becomes in those mountainous regions during the winter months.