1. Heer
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    Heer Inactive Member

    Pushtun, Pukhtoon, Pathan~ A brief Introduction


    PRONUNCIATION: PASH-toon

    ALTERNATE NAMES: Pushtun; Pakhtun; Pashtoon; Pathan; Afghan
    LOCATION: Southeastern Afghanistan; northwestern Pakistan
    POPULATION: 8–9 million
    LANGUAGE: Pashtu



    RELIGION: Islam (Sunni Muslim)




    1 • INTRODUCTION


    Pashtun (also spelled Pushtun, Pakhtun, Pashtoon, Pathan) are a people who live in southeastern Afghanistan and the northwestern province of Pakistan. They are one of the largest ethnic groups in Afghanistan. There is no true written history of the Pashtun in their own land. Pashtun are traditionally pastoral nomads (herders who move frequently to find grazing land) with a strong tribal organization. Each tribe is divided into clans, subclans, and patriarchal families.



    2 • LOCATION


    Pashtun have lived for centuries between Khurasan and the Indian subcontinent, at the crossroads of great civilizations.


    Pashtun are made up of about sixty tribes of varying sizes. Each one occupies its own territory. Pashtun are the major ethnic group in Afghanistan. In Pakistan, Pashtun predominate north of the town of Quetta and between the Sulaiman Mountain Ranges and the Indus River.


    3 • LANGUAGE


    Pashtu is the language of the Pashtun and one of the two official languages of Afghanistan. It is also the language of twelve million Pashtun in Pakistan. Pashtu belongs to the North-Eastern group of languages within the Iranian branch of Indo-European. Pashtu is written in the Perso-Arabic script.
    Some typical examples of the Pashtu language are the words used for parts of the Pashtun code of morals and manners, called Pashtunwalli. These include milmastia (hospitality); tureh (courage; also the word for sword ); badal (revenge); and ghayrat (protection of one's honor). A Pashtun tribal council is called a jirga.




    4 • FOLKLORE



    Pashtun have many traditional stories, both in their own language and in Persian. One story tells of a man who wanted to discover how to change his luck. According to the story, a man may be given the opportunity to experience luck, but he must have the intelligence to take advantage of it.
    A man asked his lucky brother, "Where is good luck?" "In the forest," his brother replied. So the unlucky man set out for the forest. On the way he met a lion. When the lion heard where the man was going, he begged him to ask why he was ill, and why nothing made him feel better. When the man had gone a little farther, he found a horse lying down, too weak to stand. Next he came upon a tree, who asked the man, "Please, enquire on my behalf, why am I leafless?" When the man reached the place where he found his good luck, he seized it. His good luck said, "You may have good luck, but you still do not have intelligence." The man asked the questions he carried for the lion, the horse, and the tree. His fortune replied, "Tell the lion that he should devour a fool and he will recover his health. Tell the horse that he should take a master who will ride him and he will grow strong. And tell the tree that under its roots lies the treasure of seven kings. If the treasure is dug up, the tree's roots will flourish." On his way home, the man stopped first by the tree. He told the tree, and the tree begged him to dig the treasure from his roots. The man replied, "What good are riches, since I have my fortune." When he reported to the horse, the animal begged, "Please, sir, become my master!" But the man replied, "I have my fortune now, so look for someone else to be your master." Finally, he reported to the lion that he should devour a fool—and he told the lion all about the tree and the horse, too. When the story was finished, the lion said, "You yourself are a superlative fool!" And, with that, the lion devoured the man.
    He was a man of no cleverness, who could not recognize his opportunities, so his fortune did him no good.


    5 • RELIGION


    Islam was introduced to the Pashtun in the eighth century. All but a few Pashtun tribes are followers of the Sunni Muslim sect.


    6 • MAJOR HOLIDAYS


    Pashtun celebrate the two major festivals of the Islamic lunar calendar year: Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha. They also observe the tenth of Muarram, which commemorates the martyrdom of the prophet Muhammad's grandson.


    7 • RITES OF PASSAGE


    Pashtun are automatically considered Muslims (followers of Islam) at birth. When a baby is born, Pashtun whisper the call for prayer in the baby's ear. The male circumcision ceremony is held at the same time as the birth celebration (at about the age of one week). Children officially join in the rituals of prayers and fasting when they reach ****** maturity, but in practice they begin much earlier.
     
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  2. Heer
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    8 • RELATIONSHIPS


    Pashtun society is largely communal (group-oriented) and attaches great importance to an unwritten code, called Pashtunwalli. This code defines the way members should behave to keep the tribe together. Hospitality (milmastia) is important, as is the use of the tribal council (jirga) to resolve conflicts and make decisions. Other Pashtun virtues include courage (tureh); taking revenge (badal); and protecting one's honor (ghayrat). Another part of the Pashtun code of conduct is nanawati, a way of resolving differences through the group's elders.


    9 • LIVING CONDITIONS


    Generally, the Pashtun of Afghanistan do not have very high living standards. Many groups of Pashtun along the border between Afghanistan and Pakistan live as nomads (people who move frequently, carrying their dwelling with them).


    10 • FAMILY LIFE


    The eldest male holds complete authority over the extended family. Married sons live in their fathers' households, rather than establishing homes of their own. The household normally consists of a man and his wife, his unmarried children, and his married sons and their wives and children. When young women marry, they join their husbands' households and transfer their loyalty to their husbands' families.
    Economically, the Pashtun family is a single unit. Wealthy family members contribute to the support of those who are poorer. Old people depend on their children for care and support. The whole family shares the expense of having a child away at school.


    11 • CLOTHING


    Traditional male dress is qmis, a loose-fitting shirt that reaches to the knees, and shalwar, full trousers tied at the waist with a string. A vest is usually worn over the shirt. Footwear consists of chaplay, thick leather shoes. Most Pashtun adult males wear pagray, turbans. Long strips of cotton cloth are wound around the head, leaving the forehead exposed because it is touched during prayer. The turban is fastened so that one end dangles. The loose end is used as a typ of washcloth for wiping the face. Usually men also wear a long, wide piece of cloth called a chadar on their shoulders.
    Rural women wear baggy black or colored trousers, a long shirt belted with a sash, and a length of cotton over the head. City women wear the same type of trousers, a qmis (long shirt), and a cotton cloth to cover their heads. Over their clothing, they also usually wear a burqa —a veil that covers them from the head to below the knees.


    Recipe


    Quabili Pulaw Dampukht
    (Rice with Carrots and Raisins)


    Ingredients
    • 2 to 3 Tablespoons vegetable oil
    • 1 onion, chopped
    • 1 pound lean beef stew meat
    • 2 cups water
    • ½ teaspoon each cinnamon, cloves, cumin, and cardamom
    • 2 medium carrots, cut into small, match-stick-sized pieces
    • 1 teaspoon sugar 1 cup seedless raisins
    • pinch of saffron
    • 2 Tablespoons blanched almonds
    • 2 Tablespoons blanched pistachios
    • 2 to 3 cups rice, cooked in broth from cooking meat
    Directions
    1. Heat oil and brown onion. Add beef stew meat and brown on all sides.
    2. Add water and spices. Cover pan and simmer mixture until meat is tender (about one hour).
    3. Remove meat and set aside. Save the broth to use for cooking rice.
    4. Heat small amount of oil in a small pot and add carrots and almonds. Cook until carrots and almonds are lightly browned.
    5. Remove carrots and almonds, and add them to the meat. Put raisins in the saucepan with about ¼ cup water. Simmer for 5 minutes until raisins are puffy.
    6. Remove raisins and add them to the meat mixture. Cook the rice according to package directions, using the broth from step 3 for the liquid, adding more water if necessary.
    7. Combine all ingredients and mix. Place mixture in a large casserole and bake at 300° F for 20 to 30 minutes.
    Adapted from McKellar, Doris. Afghan Cookery. Kabul, Afghanistan: Kabul University, 1967.





    12 • FOOD



    Religious prohibitions prevent Pashtun (and all Muslims) from eating pork and drinking alcoholic beverages. Staples of the Pashtun diet include bread, rice, vegetables, milk products, meat, eggs, fruits, and tea. A favorite dish is pulaw, a rice dish flavored with coriander, cinnamon, and cardamom that has many variations.
     
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  3. Heer
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    Heer Inactive Member

    13 • EDUCATION





    Education throughout Afghanistan has been disrupted, first by the Russian invasion and occupation (1978), and since then by continuing civil warfare. Traditionally, education took place in religious institutes and mosque (religious) schools ( called madrassa or maktab). As of the late 1990s, there were boys' and girls' schools for Pashtun children in almost in every village.




    14 • CULTURAL HERITAGE




    Choral singing is part of the Pashtun culture. Pashtun have a folk song tradition that includes special songs for marriages and funerals. Poems known as matal are very popular. Atan is a famous group folk dance of the Pashtun.




    15 • EMPLOYMENT




    Pashtun work at a variety of occupations in agriculture, business, and trade. Women and children also play roles in agricultural work. Many Pashtun of Afghanistan are poor agricultural workers. Working conditions are generally better for Pashtun living in Pakistan than for those in Afghanistan.




    16 • SPORTS




    Naiza bazi, a game involving riding horses and throwing spears, is a sport enjoyed among the Pashtun. Some Pashtun also have rock-throwing competitions. Pashtun in the northern regions of Afghanistan enjoy buzkashi, or "goat pulling," a game in which men on horseback compete for possession of a dead goat or calf.




    17 • RECREATION




    Social get-togethers are the major form of entertainment.




    18 • CRAFTS AND HOBBIES




    The Pashtun in the city sew unique designs on their clothes and wear small hats made of silk.




    19 • SOCIAL PROBLEMS




    Differences among Pashtun clans and families have led to much violence and killing, both in Afghanistan and in Pakistan.




    20 • BIBLIOGRAPHY




    Ali, Sharifah Enayat. Cultures of the World: Afghanistan. New York: Marshall Cavendish, 1995.


    Clifford, Mary Louise. The Land and People of Afghanistan. New York: Lippincott, 1989.


    Nyrop, Richard F., and Donald M. Seekins, eds. Afghanistan: A Country Study. Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, 1986.
     
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  4. Heer
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    The Punjabie's

    ThePunjabipeople are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group from South Asia. They originate from the Punjab region, which has been host to some of the oldest civilizations in the world including one of the world's first and oldest civilizations, the Indus Valley Civilization. The Punjabi identity is primarily cultural and linguistic, with Punjabis being those whose first language is Punjabi, an Indo-European and Indo-Scythian tongue. In recent times, however, the definition has been broadened to include also emigrants of Punjabi descent who maintain Punjabi cultural traditions, even when they no longer speak the language.
    Punjabis are mostly and primarily found in the Punjab region, of India and Pakistan, which forms the present Indian state of Punjab and Pakistan province of Punjab , this is because the Punjab region was divided between the two nations at independence from Britain. In Pakistan, Punjabis comprise the largest ethnic group at roughly 60% of the total population of the country and reside predominantly in the province of Punjab and Azad Kashmir. In India, Punjabis represent about 3% of the population. The majority of Punjabi-speaking people in India can be found across the greater Punjab region which comprises the states of Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Delhi and the Union Territory of Chandigarh. Besides these, large communities are also found in the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir and the Indian states of Rajasthan, Uttaranchal and Uttar Pradesh.

    Punjabi
    is the dominant language spoken in Pakistan, and 11th most spoken language in India and 3rd most spoken language in South Asia. According to the Ethnologue 2005 estimate[5], there are 88 million native speakers of the Punjabi language, which makes it approximately the 11th most widely spoken language in the world. According to the 2008 Census of Pakistan[6], there are approximately 76,335,300 native speakers of Punjabi in Pakistan, and according to the Census of India, there are over 29,102,477 Punjabi speakers in India[7]. Punjabi is also spoken as a minority language in several other countries where Punjabis have emigrated in large numbers, such as the United Kingdom (where it is the second most commonly used language[8]) and Canada, where in recent times Punjabi has grown fast and has now become the fourth most spoken language.[9]. Punjabi is the 2nd most common language in the UK after English. The 4th most common spoken language in Canada after English, French and Chinese. There are also sizable communities in United States, Kenya, Tanzania, U****a, Persian Gulf countries, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore, Australia and New Zealand.

    Punjabis
    are ethno-linguistically and culturally related to the other Indo-Aryan peoples of South Asia. There are an estimated 120 million Punjabis around the world.

    PakistaniPunjabis

    Punjabis make up almost 45% of the population of Pakistan. The Punjabis found in Pakistan belong to groups known as biradaris, which descend from a common male ancestor. In addition, Punjabi society is divided into two divisions, the zamindar groups or qoums, traditionally associated with farming and the moeens, who are traditionally artisans. Zamindars are further divided into qoums that claim pre-Islamic ancestry such as the Rajput, Jat, Shaikhs or (Muslim Khatri), Kambohs, Gujjars, Dogars and Rahmani (Muslim Labana). Zamindar groups claiming Central Asian or Middle Eastern ancestry include the Gakhars, Khattar, Awan, Mughal and Arain, comprising the main tribes in the north of the province, while Khagga, Bodla, Jhandir, Daudpota, Gardezi, Syed and Quraishi are found in the south, all of whom claim Arab ancestry. Immigrants from neighbouring regions, such as the Kashmiri, Pashtun and Baluch ,also form important element in the Punjabi population. Pashtun tribes like the Niazis and the Khakwanis, are integrated into Punjabi village life.

    Especially
    the members of the Niazi tribe, who see themselves as Punjabis first. They have big communities in Mianwali, Bakkar, Lahore, Faisalabad, Sahiwal and Toba Tek Singh. Major Moeen groups include the Lohar, Khateek, Rawal, Chhimba Darzi, Teli, Julaha, Mallaah, Mirasi and Muslim Shaikhs, who are associated with a particular crafts or occupation


    IndianPunjabi

    The population of Indian Punjab is divided into two major religious groups, the Sikhs and Hindus. It is further sub-divided into various tribal groups, social groups (caste) and economic groups. Major sub-groups in India include the Aroras, Kalals/Ahluwalias, Bania, Bhatias, Brahmin , Chamar, Chhimba, Chura, Jatt Sikhs, Kamboj, Khatri, Labanas, Lohar, Mahtam, Mazhabi, Nais, Rajput, Ramgarhia, Ramdasia, Sainis, Soods and Tarkhans etc. The largest subgroups are Jatts with around 20% of the population, Chamars with around 12% of the population and Churas with around 10% of the population.

    Like
    Punjabi Muslim society, these various castes are associated with particular occupations or crafts. Communities such as the Jatt Sikh, Kamboj and Saini are essentially farmers, while the Arora, Bania, Bhatia and Khatri are associated to trade. Other groups are associated with particular crafts, include Lohar who were historically ironsmiths, while Tarkhans were carpenters and the Nai were barbers.[20]

    IndianPunjab is also home to small groups of Muslims and Christian. Most of the East Punjab's Muslims (in today's states of Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Delhi and Chandigarh) left for West Punjab in 1947.

    However
    , a small community still exists today, mainly in Malerkotla which was spared during partition, the only Muslim princely state among the seven that formed the erstwhile Patiala and East Punjab States Union (PEPSU). The other six (mostly Sikh) states were: Patiala, Nabha, Jind, Faridkot, Kapurthala and Kalsia.
     
  5. K
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    Khushi Inactive Member

    may ewein nai kehdi tussi great asset o Pakistan.web.pk lay, khush ravo te abad ravo
     
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  6. Syed Munawar Shah
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    Syed Munawar Shah Popular Pakistani Staff Member

    Unbelievable.... You must have worked hard to gather these information... Zbrdst.. I must appreciate this... Keep it up..
     
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  7. Heer
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    Heer Inactive Member

    Thanx khushi...
     
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  8. Heer
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    Heer Inactive Member

    ThanQ kindly ..yes it took a bit of time, but all worth it...
    Thanx for visitingand appriciating......God bless you..
     
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  9. S
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    Safina Inactive Member

    GooD Sharing.
     
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  10. A
    7

    Afreen Inactive Member

    Great information, thnx for sharing
     
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